The organization of Daesh falls within the category of armed fundamentalist organizations that believe in change by employing violence (an armed organization that utilizes Islam as a slogan). It has been labeled by many Muslim scholars and jurists as the “Khawarij” because of its methodologies and actions which are like those of the Kharijis who emerged after the death of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Some Stated that Daesh is an extreme arrogant sect that is diligent in religion, has diligence in prayer, reading, etc..
If the Kharijites read; you like their reading, if they pray; you like their prayers, but they have arrogance for they consider the people who commit adultery, who drink alcohol, who hate their parents as infidels. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “there will appear young people with foolish thoughts and ideas. They will give good talks, but they will go out of Islam as an arrow goes out of its game, their faith will not exceed their throats. So, wherever you find them, kill them, for there will be a reward for their killers on the Day of Resurrection.”
In 2004, al-Qaeda organization in Mesopotamia announced its presence in Iraq under the command of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who was loyal to al-Qaeda’s leader Osama bin Laden. Al-Zarqawi continued to lead the organization for two years, and then he was killed.
After al-Zarqawi was killed in June 2006, there was a dispute between al-Suqour party represented by al-Zarqawi and the traditional al-Qaeda party, the dispute that led to the disintegration of al-Qaeda organization in Mesopotamia after the killing of Abu Hamza al-Muhajir, what led to the emergence of the Islamic State Organization in Iraq led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who was recently escaped from al-Maliki’s prisons. The ideas of the Islamic State Organization in Iraq appeared different from the ideas of al-Qaeda. The dispute was the goal of the organization to establish an Islamic caliphate with all its details and pillars and to name the caliph of the Muslims according to their claim, who is Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Daesh organization has been in Iraq for several years arranging its papers, collecting members and establishing its methodology in Iraq, has remained hidden since its formation in 2006 and until 2013 to appear significantly in the course of events in the stages of the Syrian revolution against the Assad regime in Syria. Where Daesh was ordered to enter Syria in 2013, two years after the start of the Syrian revolution and the liberation of a large part of the Syrian territory by the Free Syrian Army. The governorate of Deir Ezzor in eastern Syria was the first destination of the organization, because of its border with Iraq and the advantage of the province of natural resources such as oil and natural gas, which are sources of funding for any faction or even at the level of countries.
The organization in Deir Ezzor did not gain the popularity required to achieve its objectives of expansion and growth, so moved towards al-Raqqa and controlled it fully and declared it as its capital and the starting point for subsequent attacks. After the organization took control over al-Raqqa, it moved towards Deir Ezzor to achieve its ambitions in it. In July 2014 and after fierce battles between the organization and the rebels of Deir Ezzor; Daesh was able to control the province and added it to the areas of control and put his hand on all vital facilities and the fields of oil and natural gas in the province, then went to al-Hasaka and seized the areas rich in oil wells in the countryside of Hasaka. The battle of Mosul was a major turning point in the structure of Daesh due to the organization’s seizure of funds, equipment and weapons from the Iraqi army there. Daesh with its soldiers who did not exceed 1000 soldiers perplexedly defeated the Iraqi army is in Mosul which is equipped by America with a strength exceeding the Forty thousand fighters. The organization, which called itself “Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant”, was able to seize the money which was left in the government departments in Mosul estimated 500 billion Iraqi dinars, equivalent to 500 million US dollars, and the seizure of US weapons which was left by the Iraqi soldiers. The value of the weapons is estimated at one and a half billion US dollars, according to lists issued by the US military after the control of Daesh on Mosul. There were several battles which were almost imaginary between the organization and the Assad army, and the two sides exchanged control over the historic city of Palmyra in the Syrian Desert. The Assad forces, after each battle, were withdrawing from the city, leaving behind them the armories, heavy equipment and weapons, as the organization looted the archaeological cultural wealth of Palmyra city, and sold them to smugglers for millions of dollars, in addition to the expropriation of archaeological sites in Deir Ezzor and selling their antiquities also to be a source of funding for the organization.
The organization had a significant influence in striking the gains of the Syrian revolution in all its aspects, taking from Deir Ezzor and al-Raqqa as an administrative center of its alleged state in Iraq and Syria, which in 2015 became extending from the northern countryside of Aleppo to Mosul in Iraq except for several neighborhoods and the military airport in Deir Ezzor, which remained under the control of the Assad forces and the organization was unable to liberate them. Daesh targeted the revolution in its military and civil aspects, where the Free Army was called ”al-Sahawat” (the Awakening), and targeted the members and leaders of the Free Army, and worked on chasing every civilian has an impact in the Syrian revolution under the charges were placed in Shara templates enacted by the organization.
Daesh used the religion to achieve more than one purpose, at the beginning used the religion to control the minds of the oppressed Syrian revolutionary young people, the organization targeted the small ages from the Arab-Muslim Sunni people in the region, and exploited the emotional side among young people. The approach of Daesh is thoughtful and cleverly planned with skill and mastery to be the only haven which provides his followers by force and influence mixed with earthly wage and final penalty which their guarantee to enter Paradise.
The organization recruited these young people in addition to the use of a part of people that were socially not likable for a variety of reasons, such like depending on people known as drug and weed addicted, where the organization improved their positions and gave them power and influence. The organization has also used religion as a whip for anyone who poses a danger to its existence. The suffering of the people of Deir Ezzor, al-Raqqa and Aleppo as a result of shedding their blood by Daesh is the best witness on the tyranny and arrogance of the organization under the pretext of religion. The organization gives a religious manner represented by fatwas that were denied by all Muslim scholars in the Islamic Shara environment, to kill people such as the implementation of suicide operations amid civil gatherings that kill dozens or hundreds of lives at a time. In addition to consider people as infidels on charges not found in the Islamic texts that it condemns people of infidelity and punish them of the killing often.